Document Type : Original Article


Sustainable Infrastructure, Department of Medicine, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia


The term coronary artery disease (CAD) is a general term for disease conditions that cause blockage of coronary blood flow. Coronary artery disease is also called coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease. Major problems arising from abnormal blood flow to the heart muscle include angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Any factor that affects the blood flow to the coronary arteries can lead to anemia. Manifestations of cardiac anemia occur when the heart needs more oxygen than the amount of oxygen available to the heart. The most common cause of this supply and demand imbalance is persistent stenosis within the coronary artery. In most cases, the reduction in flow is due to structural changes inside the artery, which leads to narrowing of the duct inside the artery. One of the most important of these factors is atherosclerosis or atherosclerosis. Other causes of embolism, trauma or direct injury, inflammation of the coronary arteries during systemic diseases such as syphilis, lupus, etc. can cause coronary artery stenosis and obstruction, but in 99% of cases it is the cause of obstructive lesions of arthroscrosis.


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