Introduction: Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia is a significant complication that can occur following thyroid surgery. Patient-related factors, surgical factors, and pathological factors contribute to the development of hypocalcemia. Prompt recognition, appropriate management, and preventive measures are essential to minimize the occurrence of hypocalcemia and its associated complications.
Material and Methods: This article aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. A retrospective cohort study design was employed to analyze data from patients who underwent thyroidectomy at a single institution. The study period spanned from January 2018 to December 2020. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution.
Results: In the univariate logistic regression analysis, several risk factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Advanced age was found to be a significant predictor, with patients aged 60 years or older having a higher risk compared to younger individuals (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.8, p<0.001). Female gender was also associated with an increased risk of hypocalcemia (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7, p=0.005)
Conclusion: this study identified several risk factors associated with post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, including advanced age, female gender, lower preoperative calcium levels, total thyroidectomy, presence of thyroid cancer, and extensive thyroid gland involvement. These findings can aid in preoperative risk stratification, surgical planning, and patient counseling.